Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ) was first discovered in 1979. Over the years, various pqq studies have been carried out to ascertain the effects as well as benefits of this quinone form on the human body. Initially, this molecule was perceived to be a vitamin. Some research findings on the molecule have revealed that it can function as a REDOX agent within body cells, thus modifying signaling and supporting mitochondrial activity in the cells. Owing to the benefits offered by this molecule, coupled with the fact that it is limited in supply, PQQ supplements have gained immense popularity over the recent past. Throughout this article, you will gain valuable insight into what PQQ is, what it can do, its side effects and recommended dosage.
The Functioning of Pyrroloquinoline Quinone
Working as a redox agent in body cells, PQQ prevents oxidation. As a result, the molecule eliminates various free radicals that can be damaging to the body. Afterwards, the molecule is recycled by glutathione—an antioxidant enzyme—back to the PQQ active form for the cycle to begin yet again. This molecule is considered to be very stable, being capable of completing about 20,000 before being completely exhausted. These PQQ cycles within the cells have various effects to the body, such as modifying the oxidation processes and altering signaling pathways in cells.
Other PQQ studies have revealed that this molecule also acts as a co-factor in the body for a certain class of enzymes, including the enzymes associated with growth, differentiation, survival and development cellular processes. Some scientists today believe that this molecule should be considered to be an important nutrient. Research findings have also shown that the lack of PQQ in the body can have serious effects, such as poor functioning of the immune system, abnormal reproductive function and impaired growth. Such findings indicate that PQQ is an important nutrient in the body and that taking PQQ supplements can have a horde of benefits for your body.
Food Sources of PQQ
PQQ occurs naturally in various foods. These are mostly the plant-based foods, some of which include:
- Kiwi plant
- Green tea
- Green peppers
Other than green tea, each of the food sources listed above contain between 2 and 3 PQQ micrograms in every 100 grams of the food source. Green tea, on the other hand contains about 3 PQQ micrograms in every 4 ounces. Since you can only get a limited amount of PQQ from such food sources, many people prefer taking it in the form of supplements—such as the pyrroloquinoline quinone disodium salt supplement.
Most of the dietary PQQ supplements available in the market today contain between 20 and 40 mg of the molecule as an active ingredient. Currently, there are not official recommendations on the ideal PQQ dosage. However, animal studies have revealed that as little as 2 mg of the molecule can trigger effects. Other studies have used heavier dosages of the substance, such as 0.3 mg of the substance for every kilo of body weight. The studies revealed that such increases in dosage cannot lead to significant adverse effects on the user.
As such, it is advisable to consult a qualified physician before starting to take any of the PQQ supplements.
Benefits Associated With PQQ Supplement
As mentioned earlier in the article, the use of pyrroloquinoline quinine can have a horde of benefits for your body, some of which are discussed below:
Lowers Inflammation and Eliminates Free Radicals
Based human study results, taking about 20mg of this supplement—for a male weighing 150 pounds—led to a significant decline of C-reactive protein and IL-6 levels within a period of three weeks. This dosage also led to the improvement of various oxidative stress markers.
Enhances Brain Function
When introduced into the body, PQQ triggers various processes that contribute to enhanced brain function. This improved PQQ brain function may be attributed to the increased Schwann Cells and Nerve Growth Factor in the body, both of which are induced by PQQ supplements. This benefit is particularly helpful in improving memory in the old. Taking the supplement also triggers CREB—a DNA reading protein—hence contributing towards gene expression and growth. CREB will also trigger the production of new mitochondria as well as increase BDNF. As a result of such capabilities, this supplement has been able to reverse cognitive impairment (mostly caused by chronic oxidative stress).
Protects The Heart Against Stroke Effects
Whether administered after or before the ischemic event, PQQ can reduce the effects of a stroke on the heart significantly. As a matter of fact, administration of this molecule during the initial response hours can have various medical benefits for victims of heart attack. As compared to other clinical treatments for heart attack, such as beta blocker and metoprolol, the effects of PQQ are more pronounced and are the only post-heart remedy that can reduce cellular damage. Additionally, PQQ supplements can also reduce cellular damage and reperfusion oxidative damage in such a case. The molecule has also been proven to prevent acute oxidative stress in heart cells by enhancing and preserving the functioning of the mitochondria.
Lowers Insulin Resistance
Animal trials of PQQ have shown that it can help combat insulin resistance in humans. In this regard, it increases mitochondrial biogenesis within muscle cells. Additionally, PQQ intake increases the level of hydrogen peroxide—which may have some pro-oxidant properties. Mice lacking the ability to synthesize insulin showed improvements after taking this supplement. In such a case, the mice became more sensitive to insulin; hence became more resistant to obesity. This being the case, PPQ supplements can be of help to breast cancer patients.
Increases Production Of New Mitochondria
The compounds that trigger mitochondrial biogenesis are also associated with other health benefits, including improved energy utilization, increased longevity and protection of the cells from free radicals. Animal studies have shown that the lack of pyrroloquinoline quinine can lead to a reduction in the number of mitochondria. Increased PQQ content in the body activates PGC-1alpha and CREB, which then trigger increased mitochondrion biogenesis.
Side Effects Associated With PQQ
Provided that you take the PQQ supplement in accordance to your physician’s prescription, you should not experience ant side effects. Various research findings have also shown that the product does not have adverse effects on HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, liver enzymes and triglycerides, when used properly. While side effects are rare, you should discontinue the use of this supplement as soon as you experience any abnormal changes while on the supplement.
For the many years PQQ supplements have been in use, they have proven to be very beneficial to human bodies. The various benefits associated with the molecule have also been backed by many scientific researches as well as human and animal trials.